A single nanoviricide micelle may be capable of completely engulfing a Virus Particle. Nanoviricide micelles self-assemble from multiple chains. A single chain micelle shown for convenience. Illustration not to scale.
Each nanoviricide drug is designed as an antiviral agent specifically targeted for a particular type of virus or group of viruses. Most existing anti-viral agents are known to have non-specific effects against both host cells and viral machinery at the same time often leading to side effects. Most current anti-viral agents act inside human cells. It is believed that this intracellular mechanism leads to significant opportunities for unwanted side effects against host cells. Nanoviricides, on the other hand, are designed to work directly against virus particles in bodily fluids. The Company believes that this approach may make nanoviricides inherently safer than existing approaches.
A nanoviricide is designed to seek and attach to a specific virus particle, engulfing the virus particle in the process, thereby rendering it incapable of infecting new cells, and disabling it completely. This suggested mechanism of action encompasses much more than what the current entry and fusion inhibitors are expected to do. The fusion and entry inhibitors do not completely cover the virus particle, likely blocking only a few sites on the virus particle. This means the virus particle may still be capable of infecting cells using its unblocked attachment sites. In contrast, a nanoviricide, because of its larger size and flexible nature, is expected to engulf the virus particle completely, thus disabling the virus particle. The action of a nanoviricide, if it works as designed, may be expected to be superior to antibody agents that attack viruses. Antibodies, being large, are expected to block relatively greater portions of the virus particle surface compared to small molecule entry inhibitors. However, antibodies depend upon the human immune system responses for clearing the virus particle. In contrast, nanoviricides are thought to be capable of acting as completely programmed chemical robots that finish their task of destroying the virus particle on their own.
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